National Education Commission (1964-1966) - Kothari Commission
National Education Commission, also known as Kothari commission was set up on 14th July 1964 under chairmanship of Dulat Singh Kothari, then chairman of University Grants Commission.
The terms of reference of the commission was to formulate the general principles and guidelines for the development of education from primary level to the highest and advise the government on a standardized national pattern of education in India. However, the medical and legal studies were excluded from the purview of the commission. The tenancy of the commission was from 1964 to 1966 and the report was submitted by the commission on 29 June 1966.
This commission gave following 23 types of recommendations:
1.Defects in the existing system of education according to Indian education commission.
2.Aims of education according to Indian education commission.
3.Recommendation of Indian education commission on Educational structures and standards.
4.Recommendation of Indian education commission on Curriculum.
5.Recommendation of Indian education commission on Textbook.
6.Recommendation of Indian education commission on Methods of teaching.
7.Recommendation of Indian education commission on Guidance and counselling.
8.Recommendation of Indian education commission Regarding problems of supervision and inspection.
9.Recommendation of Indian education commission on Problems of administration.
10.Recommendation of Indian education commission on Physical welfare of students.
11.Recommendation of Indian education commission on Evaluation.
12.Recommendation of Indian education commission on Adult education.
13.Recommendation of Indian education commission on Teacher education.
14.Recommendation of Indian education commission on Three (3) language formula.
15.Recommendation on Moral and religion education
16.Recommendation on Education of women.
17.Recommendation on vocational Education.
18. Recommendation on Work experience.
19.Recommendation on Distance Education.
20. Recommendation on Aims objectives and functions of University.
21. Recommendation on Enrollment in Higher Education.
22.Recommendation on Selective Admission.
23.Recommendation on University Autonomy.
The main recommendations of this commission:
- boys and girls should be given science and mathematics education through unified curriculum. In fact, unified curriculum gives equal opportunities to girls.
- 25 percent middle schools should be converted to vocational schools.
- All children should be given primary education through native language. At secondary level, education should encourage local languages.
- There should be 1 to 3 years of pre-primary education.
- Admission in class first should be given only after completion of 6 years of age.
- First public exam should be conducted only after completion of 10 years of school education.
- Higher education should consist of 3 or more years of graduation curriculum and legal education should be after that.
- There will be two types of secondary education. Secondary and Higher Secondary.
- Common school system will be set up and education up to post-graduation will be given in native language.
- Monetary, social and professional condition of teacher should be improved.